|Concepts are new, foreign (e.g., mathematics, physics principles).
||Graphics, tools, simulations, video-based problem scenarios
||Visual examples clarify concepts and applications
|Concepts are abstract, complex (e.g., physics principles, biology systems).
||Maths tools (Geometer’s SketchPad), simulations, problem-solving software, spreadsheet, exercises, graphing calculators
||Graphics displays make abstract concepts more concrete; students can manipulate system to see how they work
|Time-Consuming manual skills (e.g., handwriting, calculations, data collection) interfere with learning high-level skills
||Tool software (e.g., word processing, spreadsheets) and probeware
||Attention-getting displays, immediate feedback, and interaction combine to create motivating practice
|Students cannot see relevance of concepts to their lives (e.g., history, social studies)
||Stimulations, internet activities, video-based problem scenarios
||Visual, interactive activities help teachers demonstrate relevance.
|Skills are ‘inert’, i.e. students can do them but do not see where they apply (e.g., mathematics, physics).
||Simulations, problem solving software, video-based problem scenarios, students development of web pages, multimedia products
||Project-based learning using these tools establishes clear links between skills and real-world problems.
|Students dislike preparing research reports, presentations.
||Student development of desktop- published and web page/multimedia products
||Students like products that look polished, professional
|Students need skills in working collaboratively, opportunities to demonstrate learning in alternative ways.
||Student development of desktop-published and web page/multimedia products
||Provides format in which group work makes sense; students can work together “virtually” students make different contributions to one product based n their strengths
|Students need technological competence in preparation for workplace.
||All software and productivity tools; all communications, presentation; and multimedia software
||Illustrates and provides practice skills and tools students will need in work situations
|Teachers have limited time for correcting students individual practice items.
||Drill-and-practice software, handheld computers with assessment software
||Feedback to students is immediate; frees teachers for work with students
|No teachers available for advanced courses.
||Self-instructional multimedia, distance courses
||Provides structured, self-paced learning environments
|Students need individual reviews of missed work.
||Tutorial or multimedia software
||Provides structured, self paced environments for individual review of missed concepts.
|Schools have insufficient consumable materials (e.g., science labs, workbooks).
||Simulations, CD-ROM based texts, ebooks
||Materials are reusable, saves money on purchasing new copies.
|Students need quick access to information and people are not locally available.
||Internet and email projects; multimedia encyclopedia and atlases
||Information to access; people are easier less expensive to contact.